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The Self-Adjusting File Optimizes Debridement Quality in Oval-shaped Root Canals -Journal of Endodontics-Vol 37, Issue 5, May 2011, Pages 701-705
Oval-shaped canals represent a challenge for rotary nickel-titanium (NiTi) files because buccal and/or lingual recesses are commonly left uninstrumented. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the debridement quality of the Self-Adjusting File (SAF) system in oval canals and compare it with the debridement achieved by a commonly used NiTi rotary system. There was significantly greater residual pulp tissue left after ProTaper system instrumentation versus SAF instrumentation (21.4% vs 9.3%, P < .05). The SAF protocol was significantly more efficient for debridement of oval root canals than the rotary ProTaper protocol.NOTE: SAF has some improvements, but it costs 70 USD per file. In addition it needs to be used with special motor cum pump which will be usable only with SAF. Pack 10 SAF files with motor and handpiece are selling for 2750 Australian dollars To see list of all types of rotary files CLICK HERE
Tapered instrumentation technique- Suboptimal cleaning even of Pulp tissue (J Endod 2010;36:1897–1900)
Fifty-four recently extracted vital lower incisors were instrumented with either a full range of ProTaper Universal instruments in rotary motion (group 1) or with the single-file F2 ProTaper technique in reciprocating motion (group 2). Teeth were previously classified as round or oval-shaped by means of bidirectional radiographs, resulting in 24 round canals, 24 oval canals, and 12 controls. The percentage of residual pulp tissue (PRPT) was calculated with the aid of image analysis software. Univariate analysis of variance was used to verify the variables influencing PRPT. Results: Group 1 displayed considerably less PRPT in oval canals than group 2 (P < .05), whereas in round canals no significant difference was found between the 2 techniques (P > .05). Conclusions: The single-file F2 ProTaper technique displayed similar PRPT to the full range of ProTaper instruments in round canals. However, the debridement quality of the single-file F2 ProTaper technique was suboptimal in oval canals.
The Self-adjusting File (SAF). Part 1: Respecting the Root Canal Anatomy—A New Concept of Endodontic Files and Its Implementation, Zvi Metzger et al, JOE, Vol 36, issue 4, p 679-90, 2010
The SAF file is hollow and designed as a thin cylindrical nickel-titanium lattice that adapts to the cross-section of the root canal. A single file is used throughout the procedure. It is inserted into a path initially prepared by a # 20 K-file and operated with a transline- (in-and-out) vibration. The resulting circumferential pressure allows the file's abrasive surface to gradually remove a thin uniform hard-tissue layer from the entire root canal surface, resulting in a canal with a similar cross-section but of larger dimensions. This holds also for canals with an oval or flat cross-section, which will be enlarged to a flat or oval cross-section of larger dimensions. The straightening of curved canals is also reduced because of the high pliability of the file and the absence of a rigid metal core. Thus, the original shape of the root canal is respected both longitudinally and in cross-section. The hollow SAF file is operated with a constant flow of irrigant that enters the full length of the canal and that is activated by the vibration and is replaced continuously throughout the procedure. This results in effective cleaning even at the cul de sac apical part of the canal. The SAF has high mechanical endurance; file separation does not occur; and mechanical failure, if it occurs, is limited to small tears in the latticework.Influence of the shape of artificial canals on the fatigue resistance of NiTi rotary instruments Published Online: 4 Nov 2009, International Endodontic Journal
Aim To investigate the influence of the trajectory of NiTi rotary instruments on the outcome of cyclic fatigue tests. Methodology Ten ProFile and Mtwo instruments tip size 20, taper 0.06 and tip size 25, taper 0.06 were tested in two simulated root canals with an angle of curvature of 60° and radius of curvature of 5 mm but with different shape. Geometrical analysis of the angle and radius of the curvature that each instrument followed inside the two different artificial canals was performed on digital images. The instruments were then rotated until fracture at a constant speed of 300 rpm to calculate the number of cycles to failure (NCF) and the length of the fractured fragment. Mean values were calculated and analysed using two different multivariate linear regression models and an independent sample t-test. Results The shape of the artificial root canal used in cyclic fatigue studies influenced the trajectory of the instrument. This difference is reflected by the NCF measured for the same instrument in the different artificial root canals and by the impact of the type of canal on both the NCF (St.ß = 0.514) and fragment length (St.ß = -0.920). Conclusions Small variations in the geometrical parameters of the curvature of an instrument subjected to flexural fatigue could have a significant influence on the results of fatigue tests.
An In Vivo Evaluation of Two Types of Files used to Accurately Determine the Diameter of the Apical Constriction of a
Root Canal: An In Vivo Study Sumeet Darda, BDS, MDS; Narendra Manwar, BDS, MDS; Manoj Chandak, BDS, MDS; D. D. Shori, BDS, MDS.
This study is publised in July 2009 issue of Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice.It concluded: The average size of the FLSB to bind against the canal walls first at the working length was approximately two ISO sizes larger than the FKFB (P<0.001). The initiation of canal instrumentation with a K-file size three sizes beyond the mean values of the FLSB (First LightSpeed to Bind) will result in greater final enlargement of the canal compared to starting with the FKFB (First K File to Bind). This increased canal enlargement facilitates improved mechanical and chemical cleansing of the root canal ensuring removal of more microorganisms and their substrates, thus, improving the outcome of the treatment. Read Full paper .Influence of Rotational Speed on the Cyclic Fatigue of Rotary Nickel-Titanium Endodontic Instruments, Journal of Endodontics,Volume 35, Issue 7, July 2009, Pages 1013-1016
During the preparation of curved canals, rotary nickel-titanium (NiTi) instruments are subjected to cyclic
fatigue, which can lead to instrument fracture. Although several factors may influence the cyclic fatigue resistance
of instruments, the role of the rotational speed remains uncertain. This study was intended to evaluate the effects of
rotational speed on the number of cycles to fracture of rotary NiTi instruments.
ProTaper Universal instruments F3 and F4 (Maillefer SA, Ballaigues, Switzerland) were used in an artificial curved canal under rotational speeds of 300 rpm or 600 rpm. The artificial canal was made of stainless steel, with an inner diameter of 1.5 mm, total length of 20 mm, and arc at the end with a curvature radius of 6 mm. The arc length was 9.4 mm and 10.6 mm on the straight part. The number of cycles required to fracture was recorded. Fractured surfaces and the helical shafts of the fractured instruments were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy.
The results showed approximately a 30% reduction in the observed number of cycles to fracture as rotational speed was increased from 300 to 600 RPM increase in rotational speed significantly increases chances of instrument fracture. .
1. Yared, G.M., F.E. Bou Dagher, and P.
Machtou, Influence of rotational
speed, torque and operator's proficiency on ProFile failures. Int Endod J, 2001.
34(1): p. 47-53.
AIM: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of rotational speed, torque, and operator experience with a specific Ni-Ti rotary instrumentation technique on the incidence of locking, deformation and separation of instruments.
METHODOLOGY: ProFile Ni-Ti rotary instruments (PRI) sizes 40-15 with a 6% taper were used in a crown-down technique. In one group of canals (n = 300) speeds of 150, 250 and 350 rpm (subgroups 1, 2 and 3) were used. Each one of the subgroups included 100 canals. In a second group (n = 300) torque was set at 20, 30 and 55 Ncm (subgroups 4, 5 and 6). In the third group (n = 300) three operators with varying experience (subgroups 7, 8 and 9) were also compared. Each subgroup included the use of 10 sets of PRI and 100 canals of extracted human molars. Each set of PRI was used in up to 10 canals and then sterilized before each case. NaOCl 2.5% was used as an irrigant. The number of locked, deformed, and separated instruments for the different groups, and within each part of the study was analysed statistically for significance with chi-squared tests.
RESULTS: In group 1 only one instrument was deformed in the 150-rpm group and no instruments separated or locked. In the 250-rpm group instrument separation did not occur, however, a high incidence of locking, deformation and separation was noted in the 350-rpm group. In general, instrument sizes 30-15 locked, deformed and separated. Chi-squared statistics showed a significant difference between the 150 and 350 rpm groups but no difference between the 150 and 250 rpm groups with regard to instrument separation. Overall, there was a trend toward a higher incidence of instrument deformation and separation in smaller instruments. Locking and separation occurred during the final passage of the instruments, in the last (tenth) canal in each subgroup. In the second group, neither separation nor deformation and locking occurred during the use of the ProFile instruments, at 150 rpm, and at the different torque values. In the third group, chi-squared analysis demonstrated that significantly more instruments separated with the least experienced operator. Instrument locking, deformation, and separation did not occur with the most experienced operator.
CONCLUSIONS: Preclinical training in the use of the PRI technique with crown-down at 150 rpm were crucial in avoiding instrument separation and reducing the incidence of instrument locking and deformation.
2. Yared, G.M., F.E. Bou Dagher, and P. Machtou, Failure of ProFile instruments
used with high and low torque motors. Int Endod J, 2001. 34(6): p. 471-5.
AIM: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the failure incidence of ProFile nickel-titanium rotary instruments when used in conjunction with different motors and a specific instrumentation technique.
METHODOLOGY: ProFile Ni-Ti rotary instruments (PRI) with 0.06 taper were used in a crown-down technique. In groups 1, 2 and 3, an air, a high torque and a low torque motor were used, respectively. Each group included 30 canals in extracted human molars. One set of PRI sizes 40-15 was used for each canal; they were sterilized before each case. A 2.5% NaOCl solution was used as an irrigant. The number of deformed and separated instruments was recorded for the various experimental groups.
RESULTS: Instrument separation did not occur in any of the three groups. One and two instruments were deformed when using the air and high torque motors, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated no difference between the three motors with respect to the incidence of instrument failure. The results suggest that the use of PRI in a crown-down manner with air control motors was safe.
3. Szep, S., et al., Preparation of severely curved simulated root canals using
engine-driven rotary and conventional hand instruments. Clin Oral Investig,
2001. 5(1): p. 17-25.
This in vitro study evaluated the efficacy and safety of six different nickel-titanium engine-driven instruments used with a torque-controlled engine device and nickel-titanium hand and stainless steel hand instruments in preparation of curved canals. A total of 80 curved (36 degrees) simulated root canals were prepared. Images before and after were superimposed, and instrumentation areas were observed. Time of instrumentation, instrument failure, change in working length and weight loss were also recorded. Results show that stainless steel hand instruments cause significantly less transportation towards the inner wall of the canal than do nickel-titanium hand instruments. No instrument fracture occurred with hand instruments, but 30-60% breakage of instruments was recorded during instrumentation with the engine-driven devices. The working length was maintained by all types of instruments. Newly developed nickel-titanium rotary files were not able to prevent straightening of the severely curved canals when a torque-controlled engine-driven device was used.
4. Griffiths, I.T., et al., Canal shapes produced sequentially during
instrumentation with Quantec SC rotary nickel-titanium instruments: a study in
simulated canals. Int Endod J, 2001. 34(2): p. 107-12.
AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the shaping ability of Quantec SC nickel-titanium rotary instruments in simulated root canals.
METHODOLOGY: Forty simulated canals consisting of four different shapes in terms of angle and position of curvature were prepared with Quantec SC instruments. Sequential still images were taken of the canals using a video camera attached to a computer with image analysis software. Images were taken preoperatively, and then after instrument 7 (Size 25, 0.05 taper), instrument 8 (size 25, 0.06 taper), and instrument 10 (size 45, 0.02 taper) were taken to length. Each sequential postoperative image was superimposed individually over the preoperative image in order to highlight the amount and position of material removed during preparation.
RESULTS: Overall, the mean preparation time to size 10 was 3.6 min with 12 mm canals taking on average less time than 8 mm canals. There was a highly significant difference between the canal types (P < 0.0001). No instruments fractured within the canal or deformed, although one instrument separated from the latch grip. All canals remained patent. Following preparation to size 10, 19 canals (48%) retained their length, eight (20%) lost length, and 13 (32%) gained length; the magnitude of the change in length was always 0.5 mm or below. Following preparation to size 7 instruments all canals showed aberrant shapes. Excess removal of material along the outer aspect of the curve between the beginning of the curve and the end-point (outer widening) was found in 26 canals (65%) after instrument 7. At the same stage of preparation six canals (15%) had zips, three (8%) had ledges and five (13%) had perforations. Following preparation to size 10, 27 (68%) canals were perforated.
CONCLUSIONS: Under the conditions of the study, Quantec SC instruments consistently produced aberrations when canals were enlarged to size 7 (size 25, 0.05 taper) or above. Care should be exercised when using these instruments in real teeth.
5. Gluskin, A.H., D.C. Brown, and L.S. Buchanan, A reconstructed computerized
tomographic comparison of Ni-Ti rotary GT files versus traditional instruments
in canals shaped by novice operators. Int Endod J, 2001. 34(6): p. 476-84.
AIM: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of preparation with conventional stainless steel Flexofiles and Gates Glidden burs versus nickel-titanium GT rotary files in the shaping of mesial root canals of extracted mandibular molars.
METHODOLOGY: A total of 54 canals from 27 mesial roots of mandibular molar teeth were prepared using one of two methods by novice dental students. One canal in each root was prepared by a crown-down approach. utilizing stainless steel Flexofiles and Gates Glidden burs. The other canal was prepared using nickel-titanium GT rotary files in a crown-down fashion as recommended by the manufacturer. Preoperative CT scans of each root were recorded and 50 canal specimens were available for postoperative comparisons. Following canal shaping, postoperative scans were superimposed on the original images. Changes in canal area, canal transportation and thickness of remaining root structure at strategic levels of the root were analyzed. The time taken for each method was also noted.
RESULTS: At the coronal and mid-root coronal one-third sections, the rotary GT files produced a significantly smaller postoperative canal area (P < 0.05). In the mid-root sections there was significantly less transportation of the root canal toward the furcation, and less thinning of the root structure with GT files compared to the stainless steel files (P < 0.05). Overall, there was greater conservation of structure coronally and more adequate shape in the mid-root level. The GT rotary technique was significantly faster than the stainless steel hand-held file technique (P < 0.0001). Two GT instruments fractured during the study.
CONCLUSIONS: Under the conditions of this study, novice dental students were able to prepare curved root canals with Ni-Ti GT rotary files with less transportation and greater conservation of tooth structure, compared to canals prepared with hand instruments. The rotary technique was significantly faster.
6. Garip, Y. and M. Gunday, The use of computed tomograhy when comparing
nickel-titanium and stainless steel files during preparation of simulated curved
canals. Int Endod J, 2001. 34(6): p. 452-7.
AIM: The aim of this study was to compare canal preparations completed with Hedstrom and K-files of ISO size 15 - 40, made of nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) and stainless steel (SS).
METHODOLOGY: Eighty simulated canals with 200 and 30 degrees C curvatures were prepared using the step-back technique and quarter turn/pull instrument manipulation. Middle and apical level canal sections were taken using computed tomography.
RESULTS: No significant difference was found between any of the file types at either level with respect to canal curvature (20 degrees or 30 degrees). At the middle level, the stainless steel files caused more enlargement toward the inner part, compared to nickel-titanium files. At the apical level, nickel-titanium canal files caused more enlargement toward the inner part, whereas more outward enlargement was caused by stainless steel instruments. No significant difference could be observed at the middle level (P > 0.05) related to the enlargement toward the outer side of the canal curvature. Transportation at both levels was significantly less (P < 0.001) for the Ni-Ti files than the SS ones. Centring ratios of the file types at the middle level were low, but not significantly different (P > 0.05), whereas at the apical level the centring ratios were significantly higher for the Ni-Ti files (P < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Ni-Ti instruments produced preparations with adequate enlargement, less transportation, and a better centring ratio.
7. Gambarini, G., Cyclic fatigue of ProFile rotary instruments after prolonged
clinical use. Int Endod J, 2001. 34(5): p. 386-9.
AIM: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate resistance to cyclic fatigue of new and used ProFile Ni-Ti rotary instruments.
METHODOLOGY: Used instruments were operated in 10 clinical cases using passive instrumentation and a crown-down preparation technique. Cyclic fatigue testing of new and used engine-driven instruments was then performed with a specific device which allowed the instruments to rotate freely inside a stainless steel artificial canal, whilst maintaining conditions close to the clinical situation. Instruments were rotated until fracture occurred and time to fracture was visually recorded with a chronometer.
RESULTS: A significant reduction of rotation time to breakage (life span) was noted between new and used instruments. In all sizes new instruments were significantly more resistant than used ones (two-sample t-test, P < 0.01). No instrument underwent intracanal failure during clinical use.
CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged clinical use of Ni-Ti engine-driven instruments significantly reduced their cyclic fatigue resistance. Nevertheless, each rotary instrument was successfully operated in up to 10 clinical cases without any intracanal failure.
8. Ferraz, C.C., et al., Apical extrusion of debris and irrigants using two hand
and three engine-driven instrumentation techniques. Int Endod J, 2001. 34(5): p.
AIM: To evaluate the weight of debris and irrigant volume extruded apically from extracted teeth in vitro after endodontic instrumentation using the balanced force technique, a hybrid hand instrumentation technique, and three engine-driven techniques utilizing nickel-titanium instruments (ProFile .04, Quantec 2000 and Pow-R).
METHODOLOGY: Five groups of 20 extracted human teeth with single canals were instrumented using one or other of five techniques: balanced force, hybrid, Quantec 2000, ProFile .04, or Pow-R. Debris extruded from the apical foramen during instrumentation were collected into preweighed 1.5 mL tubes. Following instrumentation, the volume of extruded irrigant fluid was determined by visual comparison to control centrifuge tubes filled with 0.25 mL increments of distilled water. The weight of dry extruded dentine debris was also established.
RESULTS: Overall, the engine-driven techniques extruded less debris than the manual ones. However, there was no statistical difference between the balanced force technique and the engine-driven methods. The volume of irrigant extruded through the apex was directly associated with the weight of extruded debris, except within the ProFile group. The hybrid technique was associated with the greatest extrusion of both debris and irrigant.
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the engine-driven nickel-titanium systems were associated with less apical extrusion.
9. Fariniuk, L.F., et al., Modeling capacity of ENDOflash files in simulated
root canals. Braz Dent J, 2001. 12(1): p. 39-42.
With the development of rotary nickel-titanium files and their applications in Endodontics, the concepts of root canal preparation have changed. The objective of this research is to evaluate the transportation of simulated root canals caused by stainless steel ENDOflash rotary files compared to nickel-titanium ProFile files (.04, .06 and Orifice Shapers). Twenty-four simulated root canals with a 30 degrees curvature were randomly divided into 2 groups and prepared with ENDOflash or ProFile files according to manufacturers' instructions. Comparison between the simulated root canals before and after instrumentation showed significant differences (p < 0.001) between the groups, with greater transportation observed with ENDOflash files. One case of deformation was observed with a ProFile instrument (#20/.04) and there were no fractures.
10. Fabra-Campos, H. and J. Rodriguez-Vallejo, Digitization, analysis and
processing of dental images during root canal preparation with Quantec Series
2000 instruments. Int Endod J, 2001. 34(1): p. 29-39.
AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the shaping ability of Quantec Series 2000 nickel-titanium instruments in the mesio-buccal roots of maxillary first molars and the mesial roots of mandibular first molars.
METHODOLOGY: A total of 20 canals were prepared with Quantec instruments, adopting the technique recommended by the manufacturer. Each canal was sectioned horizontally into four and the canal in each portion photographed before and after preparation. The images obtained were digitized and the increase in canal surface for each quadrant of the four sections was evaluated, along with the variation in centre of mass after instrumentation.
RESULTS: Mechanical instrumentation of the canals generated mean centre of mass displacements that did not vary between sections, except for the mid-apical section, which showed significant mesial displacement, i.e. toward the side opposite the furcation. Thus, overall, the widening of the canal was symmetrical.
CONCLUSIONS: Under the conditions of the study, the Quantec Series 2000 rotary system was simple and safe to use, and created good three-dimensional mechanical preparation of natural canals.
11. Yared, G.M., F.E. Bou Dagher, and P. Machtou, Cyclic fatigue of ProFile
rotary instruments after clinical use. Int Endod J, 2000. 33(3): p. 204-7.
AIM: The purpose of this study was to evaluate cyclic fatigue of .06 ProFile Ni-Ti rotary instruments after clinical use in molar teeth.
METHODOLOGY: In group 1, instruments size 40-15 were used in a crown-down technique using 2.5% NaOCl as an irrigant. Fifty-two molars were included and 13 sets of Profile Ni-Ti rotary instruments were used. Each set of instruments was used in four molars, and was steam autoclaved before each use. Group 2 (10 sets of new ProFile Ni-Ti rotary instruments) was the control group. Cyclic fatigue was tested by rotating the instruments in a 90 degrees metallic tube until they broke.
RESULTS: One-way analysis of variance did not show any statistically significant differences amongst the files from both groups regarding cyclic fatigue.
CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that sterilization and clinical use in the presence of NaOCl did not lead to a decrease in the number of rotations to breakage of the files.
12. Watson, T.F., D. Flanagan, and D.G. Stone, High and low torque handpieces:
cutting dynamics, enamel cracking and tooth temperature. Br Dent J, 2000.
188(12): p. 680-6.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of these experiments was to compare the cutting dynamics of high-speed high-torque (speed-increasing) and high-speed low-torque (air-turbine) handpieces and evaluate the effect of handpiece torque and bur type on sub-surface enamel cracking. Temperature changes were also recorded in teeth during cavity preparation with high and low torque handpieces with diamond and tungsten carbide (TC) burs. The null hypothesis of this study was that high torque handpieces cause more damage to tooth structure during cutting and lead to a rise in temperature within the pulp-chamber. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Images of the dynamic interactions between burs and enamel were recorded at video rate using a confocal microscope. Central incisors were mounted on a specially made servomotor driven stage for cutting with a type 57 TC bur. The two handpiece types were used with simultaneous recording of cutting load and rate. Sub-surface enamel cracking caused by the use of diamond and TC burs with high and low torque was also examined. Lower third molars were sectioned horizontally to remove the cusp tips and then the two remaining crowns cemented together with cyanoacrylate adhesive, by their flat surfaces. Axial surfaces of the crowns were then prepared with the burs and handpieces. The teeth were then separated and the original sectioned surface examined for any cracks using a confocal microscope. Heat generation was measured using thermocouples placed into the pulp chambers of extracted premolars, with diamond and TC burs/high-low torque handpiece variables, when cutting occlusal and cervical cavities.
RESULTS: When lightly loaded the two handpiece types performed similarly. However, marked differences in cutting mechanisms were noted when increased forces were applied to the handpieces with, generally, an increase in cutting rate. The air turbine could not cope with steady heavy loads, tending to stall. 'Rippling' was seen in the interface as this stall developed, coinciding with the bur 'clearing' itself. No differences were noted between different handpieces and burs, in terms of sub-surface enamel cracking. Similarly, no differences were recorded for temperature rise during cavity preparation.
CONCLUSIONS: Differences in cutting mechanisms were seen between handpieces with high and low torque, especially when the loads and cutting rates were increased. The speed increasing handpiece was better able to cope with increased loading. Nevertheless, there was no evidence of increased tooth cracking or heating with this type handpiece, indicating that these do not have any deleterious effects on the tooth.
13. Thompson, S.A. and P.M. Dummer, Shaping ability of Hero 642 rotary
nickel-titanium instruments in simulated root canals: Part 2. Int Endod J, 2000.
33(3): p. 255-61.
AIM: To determine the shaping ability of Hero 642 nickel-titanium rotary instruments during the preparation of simulated canals.
METHODOLOGY: A total of 40 simulated root canals made up of four different shapes, in terms of angle and position of curvature, were prepared by Hero 642 instruments using a crown-down preparation sequence. Pre- and postoperative images of the canals were taken using a video camera attached to a computer with image analysis software. The pre- and postoperative views were superimposed to highlight the amount and position of material removed during preparation. This report describes the efficacy of the instruments in terms of prevalence of canal aberrations, the amount and direction of canal transportation and overall postoperative shape.
RESULTS: Four zips and four elbows were created during preparation, all in canals with 40 degrees, 12 mm curves. No perforations or danger zones were created. Highly significant differences (P < 0.001) were apparent between the canal shapes in total canal width at the apex and beginning of the curve, and in the amount of resin removed from the inner and outer aspects of the curve at the orifice. Canal transportation was most frequently directed toward the outer aspect of the curve at specific points along the canal, except at the orifice, where it was apparent that canals with 20 degrees curves transported toward the inner. Overall, mean absolute transportation was always less than 0.15 mm; however, significant differences occurred between canal shapes at the end-point (P < 0.01), apex of the curve (P < 0.01) and at the orifice (P < 0.01).
CONCLUSIONS: Under the conditions of this study, Hero 642 rotary nickel-titanium instruments created canals with few aberrations and no perforations. The relatively high proportion of aberrations in canals with short, acute curves may indicate that instruments with increased taper should be used with caution at or near the full working distance. Further research in real teeth is necessary to elucidate the full potential of these new rotary instruments for use in root canal preparation.
14. Thompson, S.A. and P.M. Dummer, Shaping ability of Hero 642 rotary
nickel-titanium instruments in simulated root canals: Part 1. Int Endod J, 2000.
33(3): p. 248-54.
AIM: To determine the general efficacy and shaping ability of Hero 642 nickel-titanium rotary instruments during the preparation of simulated canals. Part 1 of this two-part report describes the efficacy of the instruments in terms of three-dimensional canal form.
METHODOLOGY: A total of 40 simulated root canals made up of four different shapes in terms of angle and position of curvature were prepared by Hero 642 instruments using a crown-down preparation sequence. The efficacy of the instruments was assessed in terms of preparation time, instrument failure, canal blockages and loss of canal length. Intra-canal impressions were taken of the prepared canals in order to assess three-dimensional canal form.
RESULTS: The mean time for canal preparation was 8.6 min and was influenced significantly (P < 0.05) by canal shape. Two instruments fractured and eight instruments deformed; significant differences were observed between canal shapes (P < 0.05). All of the canals remained patent. Fifteen canals (39.5%) maintained the correct working distance, 15 lost distance and eight canals gained length. Examination of intracanal impressions demonstrated that the majority of canals (79%) had apical stops; canal shape had a significant influence (P < 0.001) on the quality of apical stops. With one exception all canals had smooth canal walls and all of the canals showed good flow characteristics. Taper was poor in 30 canals (79%) and good in eight canals (21%).
CONCLUSIONS: Hero 642 rotary nickel-titanium instruments prepared simulated canals rapidly but with a three-dimensional form that lacked adequate taper.
15. Shuping, G.B., et al., Reduction of intracanal bacteria using
nickel-titanium rotary instrumentation and various medications. J Endod, 2000.
26(12): p. 751-5.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent of bacterial reduction with nickel-titanium rotary instrumentation and 1.25% NaOCl irrigation. Also, the additional antibacterial effect of calcium hydroxide for >1 wk was tested. Forty-two subjects with radiographic and clinical signs of chronic apical periodontitis were recruited. The canals were sampled before treatment, during and after instrumentation, and after treatment with calcium hydroxide and the samples incubated anaerobically for 7 days at 37 degrees C. The bacteria from each sample were quantified and the log10 values were used for calculations and comparisons. The initial sample confirmed infection of the canals. There was a significantly greater pattern of reduction of bacteria when NaOCl was used as an irrigant, compared with sterile saline (p < 0.05). After instrumentation with NaOCl irrigation, 61.9% of canals were rendered bacteria-free. The placement of calcium hydroxide for at least 1 wk rendered 92.5% of the canals bacteria free. This was a significant reduction, compared with NaOCl irrigation alone (p = 0.0001). The results of this study indicate that NaOCl irrigation with rotary instrumentation is an important step in the reduction of canal bacteria during endodontic treatment. However this method could not consistently render canals bacteria-free. The addition of calcium hydroxide intracanal medication should be used to more predictably attain this goal.
16. Sattapan, B., J.E. Palamara, and H.H. Messer, Torque during canal
instrumentation using rotary nickel-titanium files. J Endod, 2000. 26(3): p.
Nickel-titanium engine-driven rotary instruments are used increasingly in endodontic practice. One frequently mentioned problem is fracture of an instrument in the root canal. Very few studies have been conducted on torsional characteristics of these instruments, and none has been done under dynamic conditions. The purposes of this study were to measure the torque generated and the apical force applied during instrumentation with a commercial engine-driven nickel-titanium file system, and to relate torque generated during simulated clinical use to torsional failure of the instruments. Ten extracted human teeth (five with small-sized and five with medium-sized straight root canals) were instrumented with Quantec Series 2000 files, and the torque and apical force generated were measured. The applied apical force was generally low, not exceeding 150 g in either small or medium canals. The torque depended on the tip size and taper of each instrument, and on canal size. Instruments with 0.05 and 0.06 taper generated the highest torque, which was greater in small than in medium canals. The torque at failure was significantly (p < 0.001) higher than torque during instrumentation, but with considerable variation in the extent of the difference.
17. Rhodes, J.S., et al., A comparison of two nickel-titanium instrumentation
techniques in teeth using microcomputed tomography. Int Endod J, 2000. 33(3): p.
AIM: The aim of the study was to compare the shaping of root canals by two nickel-titanium instrumentation techniques using microcomputed tomography (MCT).
METHODOLOGY: Ten mandibular first molar teeth (30 canals) that had intact crowns and fully formed roots were scanned using MCT. Fifteen canals were instrumented using NiTiFlex hand files (Maillefer) using balanced force. The remainder were instrumented using prototype ProFile 0.04 Taper instruments (Dentsply) in a crown-down manner to an apical size ISO 25. The teeth were scanned again following instrumentation. The two instrumentation techniques were compared in a total of 27 canals. The area of dentine removed at predetermined levels (2.0, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0, 7.5 mm) from the apex was measured. Transportation and centring were recorded. Images constructed at these levels were compared with video images of equivalent physical sections created after the second scan. The volume of dentine removed in the apical 7.5 mm of the root canals of each tooth was calculated and the different techniques compared. Rendered three-dimensional images were used to assess the preparations qualitatively. The time taken for preparation was recorded.
RESULTS: There was no significant difference between hand instrumentation with NitiFlex files and machine instrumentation with prototype ProFile 0.04 Taper instruments for any of the variables tested.
CONCLUSIONS: Both techniques produced well centred and tapered preparations.
18. Kum, K.Y., et al., Shaping ability of three ProFile rotary instrumentation
techniques in simulated resin root canals. J Endod, 2000. 26(12): p. 719-23.
The aim of this study was to compare the shaping ability of three ProFile rotary instrumentation techniques and a conventional step-back method in simulated root canals. Prevalence of canal aberrations, change in working length, and preparation time were measured. A total of 48 composite images were made from pre- and postcanal scanned images using Corel Photopaint 8.0 and then the amount of coronal substance the instruments removed was also calculated two-dimensionally on digitized images with the Brain C software to compare the enlarging efficiency. There were no significant differences between the three rotary groups in preparation time, change in working length, and the incidence of aberrations (p > 0.05). The amount of coronal substance the instruments removed in the ProFile .04 taper group was significantly smaller than the other three groups (p < 0.05).
19. Kazemi, R.B., E. Stenman, and L.S. Spangberg, A comparison of stainless
steel and nickel-titanium H-type instruments of identical design: torsional and
bending tests. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod, 2000. 90(4): p.
OBJECTIVE: For a true comparison of clinically relevant qualities of instruments manufactured from different alloys, the instrument must be identical in design. The purpose of this study was to perform mechanical tests on stainless steel and nickel-titanium instruments of identical design. STUDY DESIGN: Identical experimental endodontic files of H-type with double helix were fabricated from stainless steel and nickel-titanium alloys. Torsional and bending tests were carried out according to American National Standards Institute/American Dental Association specification No. 58 and International Standards Organization No. 3630/1. Changes in instruments during the testing were also analyzed with scanning electron microscope technique.
RESULTS: The results indicated that the torsional moment of the stainless steel files was significantly higher than for the nickel-titanium files (P <.001), whereas the mean angular deflection for the nickel-titanium files was significantly higher. The mean bending moment for the nickel-titanium files was significantly lower (P <.001) than the mean value for the stainless steel files. The scanning electron microscope demonstrated that the fracture surfaces of the stainless steel files were brittle, whereas the nickel-titanium files had a ductile fracture.
CONCLUSIONS: When the design of endodontic instruments of different alloys is identical, the nickel-titanium files are more flexible in bending. However, nickel-titanium files require less force to deform to fracture.
20. Jardine, S.J. and K. Gulabivala, An in vitro comparison of canal preparation
using two automated rotary nickel-titanium instrumentation techniques. Int Endod
J, 2000. 33(4): p. 381-91.
AIM: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of root canal preparation using two automated rotary nickel-titanium instrumentation techniques with a double flared balanced forces hand preparation technique, using stainless steel files in extracted human teeth.
METHODOLOGY: Sixty root canals in extracted human teeth were matched for curvature, length and diameter and divided evenly between three groups (group 1 = double flare using Flexofiles, group 2 = rotary nickel-titanium using McXIM instruments and group 3 = rotary nickel-titanium using Profile .04 Taper Series 29 instruments). The instruments were used according to the manufacturer's instructions in a torque controlled motor and handpiece (groups 2 and 3) and according to a predetermined procedure in group 1. A standardized radiographic technique using mercury as a contrast medium was used to evaluate the canal shape before and after preparation in the plane of maximum curvature. The pre- and postoperative radiographic images were compared against each other and with a predicted 'ideal preparation' calculated from a projection of the final instrument dimensions. The outcome measures were changes in canal dimensions as quantified by measuring the changes in the position of the inner and outer wall at 1 mm intervals. Alteration in canal curvature could be inferred by comparison with the ideal preparation.
RESULTS: The degree of canal curvature did not influence the effectiveness of any of the techniques. The results showed no statistically significant differences in the outcome measures between the groups (two-way ANOVA). There were no significant differences in canal wall position changes at any level except the apical three, where significantly less change occurred in all groups (P = 1%). Instruments fractured in three canals, with acute curves in groups 2 and 3.
CONCLUSIONS: Canal curvatures were equally and well maintained following preparation in all the groups, as long as the instrument did not fracture.
21. Guppy, D.R., R.V. Curtis, and T.R. Ford, Dentine chips produced by
nickel-titanium rotary instruments. Endod Dent Traumatol, 2000. 16(6): p.
This study aimed to compare the cross-sectional shape of two nickel-titanium rotary instruments, namely ProFile and Quantec files, both ISO 25, 0.06 taper, and sought to relate this to the chips produced by cutting dentine. A limited comparison was made with stainless steel engine reamers. First, five files of each type were sectioned transversely at 12 mm, 8 mm and 4 mm from the tip and examined by scanning electron microscopy. The cutting angles were assessed by a direct measurement technique which allowed for the inclination of a cutting edge to the root canal. Second, eight samples of cutting debris were collected from instrumentation by each type of nickel-titanium file and four samples from the engine reamers. The major and minor axis, area and roundness of the dentine chips in each sample were measured using computerized particle analysis. The results demonstrated that all files had a negative cutting angle which varied at the different levels (ProFiles range 69.4 degrees to 58.4 degrees and Quantec range 74.8 degrees to 56.8 degrees). The consistency within files of the same type was good as demonstrated by low standard deviations, except for Quantec files at the 4 mm level where higher standard deviations of 4.1 degrees and 5.5 degrees for the two blades were found. The chip analysis showed significant differences between chips produced by ProFile and Quantec files (P < 0.05). The latter were larger and rounder. The chips from the ProFile and the engine reamer chips were similar in dimension (P > 0.05). No simple relationship existed between file geometry and the dentine chips produced during instrumentation.
22. Griffiths, I.T., S.T. Bryant, and P.M. Dummer, Canal shapes produced
sequentially during instrumentation with Quantec LX rotary nickel-titanium
instruments: a study in simulated canals. Int Endod J, 2000. 33(4): p. 346-54.
AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the shaping ability of Quantec LX nickel-titanium rotary instruments in simulated root canals.
METHODOLOGY: Forty simulated canals consisting of four different shapes in terms of angle and position of curvature were prepared with Quantec LX instruments. Sequential still images were taken of the canals using a video camera attached to a computer with image analysis software. Images were taken preoperatively; after, instrument 7 (Size 25, 0.05 taper), instrument 8 (size 25, 0.06 taper), and instrument 10 (size 45, 0.02 taper) were taken to length. Each sequential postoperative image was superimposed individually over the preoperative image in order to highlight the amount and position of material removed during preparation. Intra-canal impressions after preparation to size 10 were taken to evaluate three-dimensional canal form.
RESULTS: Overall, the mean preparation time to size 10 was 4.7 min; canal shape did not have a significant effect on speed of preparation. No instruments fractured within the canal, but 7 instruments separated from the latch grip, and a further 3 instruments deformed. All canals remained patent. Following preparation to size 10, 29 canals (72%) retained their length, 7 (17%) lost length, and 4 gained length; the magnitude of the change in length was always below 1 mm. Zips were created in 3 canals (7%) after use of size 10 instruments, but no perforations or danger zones were produced. Excess removal of material along the outer aspect of the curve between the beginning of the curve and the end-point (outer widening) was found in 22 canals (55%) after instrument 7, in 30 (75%) canals after size 8 and in 35 canals (88%) after size 10. There was a significant difference (P < 0.0001) between canal shapes for the incidence of this aberration at all sizes.
CONCLUSIONS: Under the conditions of the study, Quantec LX instruments tended to remove excess material from the outside of the curve between the beginning of the curve and the end-point. These aberrations increased in prevalence and severity following the use of larger instruments when they were taken to length. Size 8, 9 and 10 Quantec LX instruments should be used with care and short of length, especially in severely curved canals.
23. Gambarini, G., Rationale for the use of low-torque endodontic motors in root
canal instrumentation. Endod Dent Traumatol, 2000. 16(3): p. 95-100.
Fracture of nickel-titanium rotary files is an iatrogenic error which can seriously jeopardize root canal therapy. If a high-torque motor is used, the instrument-specific limit-torque (fracture limit) is often exceeded, thus increasing the risk of intracanal failure. A possible solution to this problem is to use a low-torque endodontic motor which operates below these values. If the torque is set just below the limit of elasticity for each instrument, the risk of fracture is likely to be markedly reduced. The purpose of this paper was to discuss mechanical properties of NiTi rotary instruments, the rationale for selecting low torque values, and to use clinically a new endodontic motor (step-motor) which operates below the limit of elasticity of each rotary file. The step-motor was found to be helpful in reducing the risk of instrument fracture. Irreversible material damage (plastic deformation) and instrument fracture were rarely seen. Low-torque instrumentation also increased tactile sense and, consequently, mental awareness of rotary instrumentation.
24. Bramante, C.M. and L.V. Betti, Comparative analysis of curved root canal
preparation using nickel-titanium instruments with or without EDTA. J Endod,
2000. 26(5): p. 278-80.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the use of EDTA as a root canal irrigant in curved root canals instrumented with nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) instruments. Twenty extracted maxillary molars were selected. Mesiobuccal roots were used. Teeth were mounted in self-curing acrylic resin bases to allow standardized angulation of the initial and final radiographs. The preinstrumentation radiographs were made with a #15 file in the canal. The canals were instrumented with Ni-Ti instruments by the step-back technique, using or not using EDTA. The post-instrumentation radiographs were made with a #30 file in the canal. The films were projected (x10 magnification), drawn, and superimposed. Ni-Ti instruments used with EDTA were less effective in maintaining the original path of curved canals.
25. Bramante, C.M. and L.V. Betti, Efficacy of Quantec rotary instruments for
gutta-percha removal. Int Endod J, 2000. 33(5): p. 463-7.
AIM: The purpose of this study was to evaluate Quantec SC rotary instruments for removal of gutta-percha during retreatment of straight root canals.
METHODOLOGY: The root canals of 30 central incisors were instrumented and obturated before the teeth were randomly divided into three groups of 10 specimens each. Quantec SC rotary instruments and a 16:1 reduction handpiece powered by an electric motor were then used to remove the gutta-percha and sealer from canals. A different speed was used in each group (group 1, 350 r.p.m.; group 2, 700 r.p.m.; and group 3, 1500 r.p.m.). The followings factors were evaluated: time taken to reach working length, time for gutta-percha removal, total time, apically extruded material during filling removal and number of fractured instruments. Radiographs were taken after the filling removal and after the canal wall cleanliness was evaluated. The teeth were grooved longitudinally, divided, and the walls of each half were evaluated visually for cleanliness. They were then digitized using a scanner and the residual debris measured.
RESULTS: The group in which a speed of 1500 r.p.m. was used had significantly faster treatment than the other groups. The amount of apically extruded material was not significantly different between groups. The only significant difference between groups for canal cleanliness was the middle third by radiographic evaluation: the group of 350 r.p.m. had larger amount of debris than the others. In group 1, six instruments fractured; in group 2, four instruments fractured; and in group 3, one instrument fractured.
CONCLUSIONS: Cleanliness and residual debris were equivalent for each group, but the use of 1500 r.p.m. speed was more rapid and fewer instruments fractured.
26. Yared, G.M., F.E. Bou Dagher, and P. Machtou, Cyclic fatigue of Profile
rotary instruments after simulated clinical use. Int Endod J, 1999. 32(2): p.
AIM: The purpose of this study was to evaluate cyclic fatigue of Profile Ni-Ti rotary instruments (PRIs) after dry heat sterilization and up to 10 times simulated clinical use.
METHODOLOGY: Instruments of size 40-15 were used in a crown-down technique. Three groups were included in this study. In groups 1 and 2, each set of instruments was used in five and 10 canals, respectively. Group 3 was the control group. NaOCl at a concentration of 2.5% was used as an irrigant. Each set of instruments was sterilized before each use.
RESULTS: The PRI size 40 demonstrated the lowest incidence of rotations to breakage. One-way analysis of variance and Turkey's HSD test showed statistically significant differences among different file sizes within each group.
CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that dry heat sterilization and simulated clinical use in the presence of NaOCl did not lead to a decrease in the number of rotations to breakage of the files.
27. Serota, K.S. and G.D. Glassman, Root canal preparation using engine-driven nickel-titanium rotary instruments. Pract Periodontics Aesthet Dent, 1999. 11(9): p. 1117-8, 1120, 1122.
28. Schrader, C., M. Ackermann, and F. Barbakow, Step-by-step description of
a rotary root canal preparation technique. Int Endod J, 1999. 32(4): p. 312-20.
CLINICAL TECHNIQUE: Since the introduction of nickel-titanium in endodontics, several canal preparation techniques involving the use of rotary instruments have become popular. Such engine-driven rotary instruments rotate between 150 and 2000 r.p.m. and may be high or low torque orientated. This paper describes one such engine-driven system called the ProFile technique. The instruments are of a different specification to that used for conventional endodontic files and reamers. This paper describes a technique employed by the Division of Endodontology, Zurich Dental School, in a step-by-step procedure using primarily photographs of radiographs. The intention is to give any interested clinician a better idea of the technique using radiographs taken from both the buccolingual (clinical) perspective and the mesiodistal projection. Basically, the technique involves preparing the coronal portion of the root canal using Gates-Glidden burs and the ProFile instruments. Only when any constricting coronal parts of the canals have been removed is the working length established using conventional files. Finally, the apical part of the canal is prepared using only the ProFile instruments. Three clinical cases are also briefly described, in order to illustrate the potential of the technique in cases treated generally by clinicians.
29. Schafer, E. and R. Lau, Comparison of cutting efficiency and instrumentation
of curved canals with nickel-titanium and stainless-steel instruments. J Endod,
1999. 25(6): p. 427-30.
The cutting efficiency and the effects of instrumentation on curved canal shape of both stainless-steel and nickel-titanium nonstandardized ProFile Series 29 hand instruments and stainless-steel Flexoreamer were investigated under standardized conditions. Concerning cutting efficiency in rotary motion, the Flexoreamer had significantly (p < 0.01) greater cutting efficiency than stainless-steel ProFiles and nickel-titanium ProFiles. Changes in the canal shape differed significantly between the different instruments at all measuring points (p < 0.001). After instrumentation with Flexoreamers with inclusion of two half-sizes (#17 and #22), there were fewer undesirable changes in canal shape compared with both stainless-steel and nickel-titanium ProFile Series 29 instruments. In this study, it seemed that flexible stainless-steel instruments with noncutting tips were superior to the nonstandardized ProFile Series 29 instruments with regard to cutting efficiency and instrumentation of curved canals.
30. Roane, J., Crown-down, nickel titanium and endodontics. Endod Prac, 1999. 2(4): p. 16-20, 23-4, 26.
31. Rapisarda, E., A. Bonaccorso, and
T.R. Tripi, [Evaluation of two root
canal preparation and obturation methods: the Mc Spadden method and the use of
ProFile-Thermafil]. Minerva Stomatol, 1999. 48(1-2): p. 29-38.
BACKGROUND: In endodontic field different instruments and techniques have been suggested for the preparation and filling or radicular bent canals. The purpose of this study is to compare two different cleaning and canal filling methods: preparation and filling technique, according to Mc Spadden's method, instrument technique and the closing of the canal system according to ProFile-Thermafil method. METHODS: In this study ten molars divided into two groups of five elements each were used. The five molars of the first group were prepared according to the "crown-down" technique with nickel-titanium instruments by NT Engine Files Quantec 2000 series. The 18 canals found out in the five molars have been filled with Pac Mac and gutta-percha preheated. The five molars of the second group have 17 radicular canals which, firstly, have been cleaned with ProFile .04 and .06 taper fitted to a manipulator at 220 revolutions per minute and then filled by Thermafil n. 30 with plastic carrier. All ten molars were X-rayed first, during and after the treatment. All teeth were soaked into polymerised resin, dissected into three different points and observed through Optical Microscope.
RESULTS: Both cleaning techniques succeed in being efficient in bent canals. The instruments made by Mc Spadden highlight a greater preservation of canal dentine than the ProFile. In samples of the first group there is an excellent adaptation of multiphase gutta-percha to the canal walls and a correct relationship between the filling material and the apical foramen. In filling with Thermafil the adaptation of gutta-percha inside the radicular canal shows outstanding differences in relation to sections taken into account. Actually, while in portion of the crown the filling can be considered satisfactory towards the canal walls, in apical sections there is a decrease in the quantity of gutta-percha step by step, while a contact of plastic carrier with dentine walls is highlighted.
CONCLUSIONS: Wheter in the shaping or in the canal filling phase, the two methods are efficient and conservative towards dental structure at the same time. These methods, have an outstanding reduction in dental weakening and in times of the endodontic treatment performance.
32. Rapisarda, E., et al., Effect of sterilization on the cutting efficiency of
rotary nickel-titanium endodontic files. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral
Radiol Endod, 1999. 88(3): p. 343-7.
OBJECTIVE: Nickel-titanium instruments that offer greater flexibility than instruments made of other metallic materials have been developed. This study evaluated the behavior in vitro of nickel-titanium rotary instruments under repeated sterilization cycles.
STUDY DESIGN: To investigate changes in cutting ability and superficial alterations, 36 ProFile instruments, 18 with a taper of .04 and 18 with a taper of .06, were exposed to different sterilization cycles. Samples were divided into 3 groups of 12 files each. The 12 group A samples were exposed to 14 cycles of sterilization for 30 minutes; the 12 group B samples were exposed to 7 cycles of sterilization for 30 minutes; the 12 group C samples were not sterilized and served as a control group. Chemical compositions of the near surface layers of samples of each group were determined by means of Auger spectroscopy.
RESULTS: The instruments that underwent the greatest number of sterilizations (group A) showed in-depth distributions of chemical composition that were different from those seen in the control group; this was the result of greater amounts of titanium oxide on the surfaces of the sterilized instruments. The files of group A showed a decrease in cutting efficiency in comparison with those of the control group.
CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of this research on nickel-titanium files, we determined that repeated sterilizations under autoclave alter the superficial structure of such instruments.
33. Ottosen, S.R., J.I. Nicholls, and J.C. Steiner, A comparison of
instrumentation using Naviflex and Profile nickel-titanium engine-driven rotary
instruments. J Endod, 1999. 25(6): p. 457-60.
This study was designed to compare the changes in canal configuration resulting from instrumentation by either Profile or Naviflex instruments. Forty mesial canals in extracted human molar teeth were embedded and sectioned at two root levels. Reassembled teeth were instrumented with a modified crown-down technique as described in the Profile training video for Profile files and in a similar manner for Naviflex instruments. Superimposed pre- and postinstrumented cross-sectional root images were projected, traced, and scanned into a computer for analysis. Canal movement, in relation to the furca, and canal area change were recorded. The results showed no significant difference in canal center movement or canal area change between the Profile or Naviflex groups. The degree of canal curvature had no effect on canal center movement or canal area change.
34. Mandel, E., et al., Rotary Ni-Ti profile systems for preparing curved canals
in resin blocks: influence of operator on instrument breakage. Int Endod J,
1999. 32(6): p. 436-43.
AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of fracture of ProFile 0.4 and 0.6 taper Series 29 nickel-titanium instruments with respect to operator experience.
METHODOLOGY: A total of 125 simulated root canals in resin blocks with the same geometrical shape in terms of angle and radius of curvature and coronal and apical orifice diameter were used. Five operators prepared all the specimens using an identical step-down instrument sequence, each one preparing 25 canals. The operators included two endodontists and three general practitioners. Statistical data concerning the incidence of instrument failure was compiled using Statlab and Fisher's partial least square difference analysis of variance.
RESULTS: A total of 21 (16.8%) instruments fractured, all had 0.04 tapers. Nine size 25 instruments failed, 9 size 20 instruments failed and 3 size 15. During the study, the Binary Tree analysis of instrument failure revealed two operator populations belonging to two different study periods. The first period, which represented the first 13 root canal preparations, was called the 'learning period', and the second period, which represented the next 12 sample preparations, was called the 'application period'. A greater number of instruments failed during the first period than during the second. In the 'learning period', both groups of operators learned the same way. In the 'application period', two groups could be distinguished; the first group consisted of a general practitioner who produced worse results, and the second group consisted of the other four operators.
CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate the necessity of mastering this rotary canal preparation technique, and the importance of improving competence through learning and experience.
35. Klein, P., Best of both worlds: stainless steel and nickel titanium. Dent
Today, 1999. 18(7): p. 66-9.
The integration of the Quantec (0.06 taper 0.25-mm tip) rotary NiTi file and the standard stainless steel K-file (ISO 0.02 taper) synergistically simplifies instrumentation of the canal. The rotary NiTi file is primarily used to flare the coronal and midportion of the canal. Its flexibility enables clinicians to do so without ledging and perforation. Because of its effective cutting ability, the stainless steel file is used to clean and shape the apical area of the canal and blend the apical portion into the flare. Ultimately, this simplifies the obturation process. When familiar with this technique, dentists may find it easier to work with sequential tapers offered in the Quantec series of instruments. This series has a of tapers from 0.02 to 1.2. Understanding the crown-down concept and using quality and reliable instruments facilitates improved productivity.
36. Gambarini, G., Shaping and cleaning the root canal system: a scanning
electron microscopic evaluation of a new instrumentation and irrigation
technique. J Endod, 1999. 25(12): p. 800-3.
The purpose of the present scanning electron microscopic study was to investigate the efficacy of a combination of EDTA, NaOCl, and surface-active irrigating solutions during and after root canal preparation with ProFile nickel-titanium rotary instruments. Thirty canals were divided into three groups, instrumented and irrigated as follows: 5% NaOCl and a final flush with 17% EDTA were used for group A; group B specimens were irrigated using 17% EDTA, followed 15 s later by 1% TRITON X-100 (tensioactive agent) and then by 5% NaOCl; and group C specimens were irrigated with the same combination, but once shaping procedures were completed the irrigating sequence was repeated three times. After scanning electron microscopic evaluation, group C specimens exhibited the most effective debridement of the root canals. Results showed that tensioactive agent contributed to enhanced debridement. Cleaning was significantly improved once shaping procedures were completed.
37. Gabel, W.P., et al., Effect of rotational speed on nickel-titanium file
distortion. J Endod, 1999. 25(11): p. 752-4.
Separation of instruments while performing root canals is something that has plagued all practitioners. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of rotational speed on nickel-titanium file distortion and separation. Forty extracted human molars were instrumented with Profile (Dentsply Tulsa Dental Products, Tulsa, OK) ISO .04 rotary nickel-titanium instruments at 166.67 or 333.33 rpm. The instruments were evaluated after instrumentation for separation and/or distortion. The results of this study were statistically significant and indicate that file distortion and/or separation is four times as likely to occur at 333.33 rpm vs. 166.67 rpm.
38. Eggert, C., O. Peters, and F. Barbakow, Wear of nickel-titanium lightspeed
instruments evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. J Endod, 1999. 25(7): p.
Used rotary nickel-titanium instruments require frequent replacing. This laboratory study evaluated defects of Lightspeed cutting tips before and after usage. The instruments were fixed into custom-made holders, the cutting heads photographed in a scanning electron microscope at x120 to x400 magnification at preset points around the cutting tip (90, 180, 270 and 360 degrees) and head-on. Instrument sizes 20 to 32.5, 35 to 60, and 65 to 100 were used in 9, 18, and 36 canals, respectively, and autoclaved after shaping every third root canal. The used instruments were cleaned and then reexamined in a scanning electron microscope as before. The presence of 11 types of conditions was scored from the pre- and postusage photographs. No instruments fractured during the test, but all the cutting heads had one or more imperfections, even before usage. The presence of debris, pitting, and metal strips changed significantly. Imperfections were found on new and used Lightspeed cutting heads, indicating the general difficulty in machining defect-free nickel-titanium rotary instruments. However, high quality should remain a goal to improve instrument efficiency.
39. Carvalho, L.A., I. Bonetti, and M.A. Borges, A comparison of molar root
canal preparation using stainless-steel and nickel-titanium instruments. J Endod,
1999. 25(12): p. 807-10.
Fifty-four extracted human mandibular molars were embedded and sectioned at two levels. The reassembled mesial root canals were prepared with stainless-steel hand K-files (Flexofiles) and either Nitiflex or Mity nickel-titanium hand K-files using a push-pull anticurvature filing technique. Each of the three experimental groups contained 36 mesial canals randomly distributed. Superimposed pre- and post-instrumentation cross-sectional root images were magnified using a stereomicroscope and transferred to a computer for measurement and statistical analysis. The direction and extent of canal center movement were evaluated. At the apical level, the groups produced no significant difference of direction of canal center movement. In cervical sections, all groups tended to move in a distolingual direction. The three groups, however, produced no significant difference in the cervical sections in the extent of canal center movement. In apical sections, Nitiflex produced the least canal center movement.
40. Bryant, S.T., et al., Shaping ability of .04 and .06 taper ProFile rotary
nickel-titanium instruments in simulated root canals. Int Endod J, 1999. 32(3):
AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the shaping ability of ProFile .04 and .06 taper rotary nickel-titanium instruments in simulated canals.
METHODOLOGY: A total of 40 simulated root canals made up of four different shapes in terms of angle and position of curvature were prepared using the 'crowndown' approach recommended by the manufacturer. Pre-operative pictures of each canal were recorded on optical discs using an image analysis package. The simulated canals were prepared and postoperative pictures superimposed on the original images.
RESULTS: No instrument fractures occurred and none deformed; none of the canals became blocked with debris. Change in working distance was, on average, 0.063 mm with 33 canals retaining the correct length. Overall, five zips (12.5%) were created and 24 (60%) canals demonstrated a widened area on the outer aspect of the canal between the end-point and the curve. Two danger zones (5%) were created and two perforations but no ledges were found. Between canal shapes there were highly significant differences (P < 0.0001) for the incidence of zips and elbows but not for the other aberrations. There were highly significant differences (P < 0.0001) for the total width of the canals between the various canal shapes at the apex of the curve, the beginning of the curve and half way to the orifice, and a significant difference (P < 0.05) at the end-point. There were highly significant differences (P < 0.0001) for the amount of resin removed from the outer aspect of the curve at the end-point and at the beginning of the curve, and significant differences (P < 0.05) at the apex of the curve and half way to the orifice. There were highly significant differences (P < 0.0001) for the amount of resin removed from the inner aspect of the curve at the beginning of the curve and half way to the orifice. Overall, transportation was towards the outer aspect of the canal except at the beginning of the curve.
CONCLUSIONS: Under the conditions of this study the combined use of .04 and .06 taper ProFile instruments was rapid, effective and produced good canal shapes except in those specimens with short curves that began near the end-point.
41. Blum, J.Y., P. Machtou, and J.P. Micallef, Location of contact areas on
rotary Profile instruments in relationship to the forces developed during
mechanical preparation on extracted teeth. Int Endod J, 1999. 32(2): p. 108-14.
AIM: The aim of this study was to locate the areas of direct instrument contact with dentine in the root canal system during rotary preparation and to analyse the relationship between these areas and the vertical forces and torque developed during the preparation.
METHODOLOGY: Canal preparations were performed by endodontists either with the step-back (SB) or the crown-down (CD) technique. In order to locate the areas of contact, the instruments were coated with two layers of gold by electro-deposition. They were photographed before and after use, and a coding system, based on mm from the instrument tip, was devised to designate areas of gold removal or instrument wear due to friction. To standarise the conditions of instrument manipulation, the teeth were fixed in the Endographe holder, and this device was used to measure vertical forces and torque.
RESULTS: The results showed that the first series of instruments used for the CD technique (taper 0.06) left 2 +/- 1 mm of the tip with the gold intact, indicating that these instruments and this step of the CD technique are the safest part of the preparation. For all other instruments (taper 0.04 series), the areas of gold removal involved the 3 mm around the tip and this finding was independent of the order of instrument use and preparation technique (SB or CD). The differences between the two techniques were significant in terms of the mean area of decolouration and the mean force and torque values. For the SB and CD techniques, the contact areas were, respectively, 10 +/- 3 and 7 +/- 2 mm. The forces and torque values were correspondingly higher for SB vs. CD; the mean values were, respectively, 19 and 21 N for vertical forces and 16 10(5) and 13 10(5) Nm for torque.
CONCLUSIONS: The recorded torque values and the location on the instruments of the areas of contact with dentine during this development of torque i.e. at or near the tip, indicate that great caution should be used with the rotary technique, particularly with the taper 0.04 instruments, regardless of preparation technique.
42. Blum, J.Y., et al., Analysis of forces developed during mechanical
preparation of extracted teeth using Profile NiTi rotary instruments. Int Endod
J, 1999. 32(1): p. 24-31.
AIM: The aim of this study was to analyse the vertical forces and torque developed in the root canal system of extracted teeth during mechanical preparation using ProFile NiTi instruments.
METHODOLOGY: Instrument wear and fracture is in great part due to the repeated application of forces and torque during the course of root-canal preparation but research into the direct relationship has been hampered by the lack of adequate measuring devices. Measurements of these forces and torque were made with a new force analyser device, the Endographe, that was equipped with a holder to record and generate graphs of the vertical forces and torque exerted during the preparations. These preparations was performed by endodontists or students either with a series of instruments of increasing size or with the crown-down pressureless technique.
RESULTS: The mean values for the endodontists of the generated vertical forces and torque varied, respectively, from 4 to 6N and from 7.105 to 12.105 Nm for the step-back technique and from 2.9 to 4.2 N and from 18.105 to 20.105 Nm for the crown-down technique. This suggested that the crown-down technique generated lower stresses (lower torque and lower vertical forces), although these findings also depend on the shape of individual canals. The students initially showed wide variations in generated forces, with significantly lower vertical force the torque values. By the end of the experimental sessions their values were similar to those of the endodontists, which indicated improvement in the efficiency of manipulation.
CONCLUSIONS: Further work is needed to investigate the relationship between the force and the torque data from this study and the incidence of instrument fracture with the two techniques, as the clinical implications are considerable. It must be noted, however, that the Endographe is unable to take into account the cutting efficiency of the instruments. The use of graphs provides a new approach to the analysis of mechanical preparation.
43. Bertrand, M.F., et al., The removal of the smear layer using the Quantec
system. A study using the scanning electron microscope. Int Endod J, 1999.
32(3): p. 217-24.
AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the ability of the Quantec Series 2000 rotary nickel-titanium endodontic system to remove dentinal debris and smear layer produced during canal preparation.
METHODOLOGY: A first group (control) of 12 curved root canals was prepared using conventional manual instruments and the step-back technique. A second group of 12 curved root canals was instrumented using the complete Quantec sequence according to the manufacturer's instructions. In both groups, irrigation was performed using a 3% NaOCl solution. The canal walls were observed under a scanning electron microscope and the coronal, middle and apical thirds of each canal photographed at a magnification of 500. The views were divided into 10 subareas by overlaying a grid, and the absence or presence of a smear layer was rated and scored on three appearances using the scale described by Ciucchi et al. (1989).
RESULTS: The scores were higher (i.e. less debris was present) in the middle third (P < 0.0001) and in the apical third (P < 0.0001) of canals prepared with the Quantec system when compared with those prepared with K-files. Nevertheless, in canals prepared with Quantec instruments, the scores were significantly higher in the coronal third compared with the apical third (P < 0.005).
CONCLUSIONS: The Quantec rotary system produced cleaner canal walls than conventional manual instrumentation, particularly in the middle and apical thirds. This finding may imply that stresses applied to the cutting regions of Quantec instruments by accumulation and compression of the smear layer are minimized.
44. Thompson, S.A. and P.M. Dummer, Shaping ability of Quantec Series 2000
rotary nickel-titanium instruments in simulated root canals: Part 2. Int Endod
J, 1998. 31(4): p. 268-74.
The aim of this laboratory based study was to determine the shaping ability of Quantec Series 2000 nickel-titanium rotary instruments in simulated root canals. A total of 40 canals with four different shapes in terms of angle and position of curve were prepared with Quantec Series 2000 instruments using the technique recommended by the manufacturer. Part 2 of this report describes the efficacy of the instruments in terms of prevalence of canal aberrations, the amount and direction of canal transportation and overall post-operative shape. Pre- and post-operative images of the canals were taken using a video camera attached to a computer with image analysis software. The pre- and post-operative views were superimposed to highlight the amount and position of material removed during preparation. Twenty-one zips and elbows were created during preparation with a significant difference (P < 0.005) between canal shapes in terms of the incidence of aberrations. Four perforations were created, with significant differences (P < 0.005) between the canal shapes; three ledges were also created but no danger zones. Highly significant differences (P < 0.001) were apparent between the canal shapes in total canal width at specific points along the canal length and in the amount of resin removed from the inner and outer aspects of the curve. Canal transportation at the end-point of preparation was most frequently directed towards the outer aspect of the curve, and without exception in canals with 40 degrees curves. At the beginning of the curve, transportation became more evenly balanced between the inner and outer aspect of the curve, although predominated towards the outer. Transportation was generally directed towards the outer at the orifice, especially in canals with 40 degrees curves. Mean absolute transportation at the various measurement points was less than 0.11 mm; significant differences occurred between canal shapes at the end-point of preparation (P < 0.0001), at the zips (P < 0.005), at the apex (P < 0.0001) and beginning of the curve (P < 0.05) and at the orifice (P < 0.0001). Under the conditions of this study, Quantec Series 2000 rotary nickel-titanium instruments created a relatively large number of aberrations including four perforations. The aberrations were created by the larger instruments implying that these should be used with caution at the full working distance. Scanning electron micrographs of these instruments revealed sharp instrument tips which appeared likely to predispose to transportation and the creation of defects along the outer aspect of severely curved canals.
45. Thompson, S.A. and P.M. Dummer, Shaping ability of Quantec Series 2000
rotary nickel-titanium instruments in simulated root canals: Part 1. Int Endod
J, 1998. 31(4): p. 259-67.
The aim of this study was to determine the shaping ability of Quantec Series 2000 nickel-titanium instruments in simulated canals. A total of 40 simulated root canals made up of four different shapes in terms of angle and position of curvature were prepared by Quantec instruments using the technique recommended by the manufacturer. Part 1 of this two-part report describes the efficacy of the instruments in terms of preparation time, instrument failure, canal blockages, change in canal length and three-dimensional canal form. The time necessary for canal preparation was on average 5.7 min and was significantly influenced (P < 0.01) by canal shape. One instrument fractured and three size nine instruments deformed; however, canal shape did not influence significantly instrument failure. All of the canals remained patent, none became blocked with debris. The majority of the canals maintained working distance (26 out of 40), however the mean change in length differed significantly (P < 0.05) between canal types. Overall, canals with 40 degrees curves lost length whilst those with 20 degrees curves gained in length. Examination of intracanal impressions revealed that preparation with Quantec Series 2000 instruments produced canals with definite apical stops, smooth canal walls and good flow and taper. However, the quality of apical smoothness and flow was influenced significantly (P < 0.0001) by canal shape with specimens having 40 degrees canals displaying less desirable qualities. Under the conditions of this study, Quantec Series 2000 rotary nickel-titanium instruments prepared simulated canals rapidly, safely and with good three-dimensional form.
46. Thompson, S.A. and P.M. Dummer, Shaping ability of Mity Roto 360 degrees and
Naviflex rotary nickel-titanium instruments in simulated root canals. Part 1. J
Endod, 1998. 24(2): p. 128-34.
The aim of this study was to determine the shaping ability of Mity Roto 360 degrees and Naviflex nickel-titanium rotary instruments in simulated root canals. In all, 80 canals consisting of four different shapes in terms of angle and position of curvature were prepared by Mity Roto 360 degrees and Naviflex instruments using the techniques recommended by the manufacturers. This study describes the efficacy of the instruments in terms of preparation time, instrument failure, canal blockages, change in canal length, and three-dimensional canal form. Overall, the mean preparation time for canals prepared using Mity instruments was 5.99 min and 5.81 min when using Naviflex instruments. Canal shape had no significant effect on the speed of preparation with either instrument. No instruments separated during the study; however, 14 Naviflex and 2 Mity instruments were deformed. Canal type did not influence significantly the tendency of either instrument to deform. None of the canals became blocked with debris during preparation. The majority of canals prepared by both instruments retained their original working length, and there was no significant difference between the canal shapes in terms of the mean loss of distance or category of distance change for either instrument. Apical stops as judged from intracanal impressions were present in 29 (72%) of the canals prepared with Mity instruments and in 33 (82%) of those prepared with Naviflex instruments. However, the majority were judged to be of poor quality. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were noted in the quality of apical stops between the canal types using Mity instruments. Canals prepared with Mity and Naviflex instruments were found to be smooth in the apical half of the canal in approximately one-half of the specimens and coronally in nearly all canals. Neither instrument produced horizontal or longitudinal grooves. Favorable flow characteristics were apparent in over one-half of the canals prepared with Mity Roto instruments; however, nearly all specimens had poor taper. Flow and taper were generally poor in the specimens prepared with Naviflex instruments. Under the conditions of this study, Mity Roto 360 degrees and Naviflex instruments prepared canals rapidly, with no separations, canal blockages, and with minimal change in working length. Although, flow was adequate using Mity Roto 360 degrees instruments, the taper characteristics were less than ideal compromising the three-dimensional form of the canals. Naviflex instruments, while creating better taper, produced poorer flow characteristics. The results suggest that when using Mity Roto 360 degrees or Naviflex instruments, the stepdown sequence should be modified to improve canal flow and taper. Alternatively, an instrument with increased taper should be used to complete preparation before obturation.
47. Schrader, C., B. Sener, and F. Barbakow, Evaluating the sizes of Lightspeed
instruments. Int Endod J, 1998. 31(4): p. 295-300.
The diameters of six different sized Lightspeed cutting heads were measured using a modified optical micrometer. Six specimens of instrument sizes 20, 22.5, 27.7, 30, 32.5 and 45 were examined. Except for one cutting head of size 30, all the recorded diameters were oversized compared to the expected diameter and the permitted tolerance (+/- 0.005 mm). Perfectly machined instruments would increase by 12.5%, 9.09% and 8.3% from instrument sizes 20-22.5, 27.5-30 and 30-32.5, respectively. Under the conditions of this study, the corresponding increases were 7.1%, 6.75% and 8.54%. Instrument size 20 had the widest range and is the smallest instrument in the Lightspeed set. The largest differences between the recorded and expected means were registered for the size 45 group. An earlier study using a different measuring method reported that Lightspeed instruments were mostly undersized.
48. Reddy, S.A. and M.L. Hicks, Apical extrusion of debris using two hand and
two rotary instrumentation techniques. J Endod, 1998. 24(3): p. 180-3.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the quantity of apical debris produced in vitro using two hand and two rotary instrumentation techniques. Sixty minimally curved, mature human mandibular premolars with single canals were divided into 4 groups of 15 teeth each and prepared using step-back instrumentation with K-files, balanced force with Flex-R files, Lightspeed nickel-titanium instruments, or .04 taper ProFile Series 29 rotary nickel-titanium files. Debris extruded through the apical foramen during instrumentation was collected on preweighed filters. The mean weight of extruded debris for each group was statistically analyzed using a Kruskal Wallis one-way analysis of variance and a Mann-Whitney U rank sum tested. Although all instrumentation techniques produced apically extruded debris, step-back instrumentation produced significantly more debris than the other methods (p < 0.0001). There was no difference between balanced force hand instrumentation and the two rotary nickel-titanium instrumentation methods (p > 0.05). Hand or engine-driven instrumentation that uses rotation seems to reduce significantly the amount of debris extruded apically when compared with a push-pull (filing) technique. Decreased apical extrusion of debris has strong implications for a decreased incidence of postoperative inflammation and pain.
49. Rapisarda, E., T. Tripi, and A. Bonaccorso, [SEM (Scanning Electron
Microscopy) study of the deterioration of ProFile .04 and .06]. Minerva Stomatol,
1998. 47(11): p. 597-603.
BACKGROUND: The ProFile are endodontic instruments made by a special nickel-titanium alloy. They have to work on constant rotation at a speed of 350 revolutions per minute. The purpose of the study is to assess, through SEM research, a possible deterioration of different ProFile conicity.
METHODS: Sixteen dental elements pulled out for period dental reasons have been used as samples to assess the progressive deterioration of .04 and .06 ProFile conicity. Eight molars and eight premolars with a total of 36 radicular canals were examined. The types of ProFile tested were 8: they were respectively 4 with .04 conicity and 4 with .06 conicity. Before being used, all instruments are previously studied through SEM. The tested ProFile with .04 conicity had a diameter of 15, 25, 30 and 45. Those with .06 conicity had a diameter of 20, 25, 30 and 35. Each tested ProFile was introduced inside a radicular canal and was turned for 180 seconds with a constant rotation of 200 revolutions per minute. After this first step, the alterations produced by the instrument could be observed through SEM. Afterwards, the same ProFile has worked again inside another radicular canal with the same time and the same number of turns, before being observed again through SEM. We have continued using this method up to the break of the instrument.
RESULTS: The instruments with .04 conicity and smaller diameter are subject to a faster deterioration, more visible at the point. After a working time of 180 seconds all the instruments have their distinct morphological alterations: after other 180 seconds it is possible to often observer an alteration to the pitch of the instrument. The breaking times are related to the diameter and conicity of ProFile tested.
CONCLUSIONS: Endodontic nickel-titanium instruments, even if they represent a progress in the field of canal preparation, undergo some alterations in their shape if they are put under inevitable mechanical stress. The damages can be: break at the top of the instrument and loss of cutting abilities at the turns level.
50. Mize, S.B., et al., Effect of sterilization on cyclic fatigue of rotary
nickel-titanium endodontic instruments. J Endod, 1998. 24(12): p. 843-7.
The ability of heat treatment as a result of autoclave sterilization to extend the life of nickel-titanium rotary endodontic instruments by reducing the effect of cyclic fatigue was evaluated using 280 size 40 Lightspeed instruments. Instruments were cycled in artificial canals with angles of curvature of 30 degrees and either 2 or 5 mm radii of curvature. In a pilot study, instruments were sterilized or not sterilized and cycled to failure to obtain mean cycles-to-failure values for each group. In the first experimental protocol, instruments were cycled to either 25%, 50%, or 75% of the mean cycles-to-failure limit determined in the pilot study, then sterilized or not sterilized before being cycled to failure. In the second experimental protocol, instruments were cycled to 25% of the mean cycles-to-failure determined in the pilot study, and sterilized or not sterilized. The sequence of cycling to 25% of the predetermined cycles-to-failure limit followed by sterilization was repeated until the instruments failed. No significant increases in cycles to failure were observed between groups for either experimental protocol when instruments were evaluated at a similar radius. Significant differences in cycles to failure were only observed when instruments cycled to failure in the artificial canal with 2 mm radius were compared with instruments cycled to failure in the artificial canal of 5 mm radius. Scanning electron microscopic photos showed crack initiation and propagation in all instruments that were cycled to a percentage of the predetermined cycles-to-failure limit. It is concluded that heat treatment as a result of autoclave sterilization does not extend the useful life of nickel-titanium instruments.
51. Busslinger, A., B. Sener, and F. Barbakow, Effects of sodium hypochlorite on
nickel-titanium Lightspeed instruments. Int Endod J, 1998. 31(4): p. 290-4.
Sodium hypochlorite is a major irrigant in endodontics, and nickel-titanium instruments are gaining in popularity. This paper investigated the corrosion of nickel-titanium Lightspeed instruments in 1% and 5% NaOCl solutions. The instruments were immersed in ultrasonicated NaOCl solutions for varying times up to 1 h. Corrosion was determined by electrothermal absorption spectrometry in 100 microL aliquots of NaOCl. Background contamination of nickel in the 1% and 5% NaOCl solutions used was low, but high enough to interfere in detecting any increases in nickel after immersing the instruments. The amounts of titanium recorded in the 1% NaOCl solutions were insignificant. However, a statistically significant amount of titanium was detected from the Lightspeed instruments after immersion times of 30 and 60 min in 5% NaOCl. Clinically such instruments do not have an 'in situ' time of 30 min, and this corrosion may be considered irrelevant clinically.
52. Bryant, S.T., et al., Shaping ability of ProFile rotary nickel-titanium
instruments with ISO sized tips in simulated root canals: Part 2. Int Endod J,
1998. 31(4): p. 282-9.
The aim of this study was to determine the shaping ability of ProFile 0.04 taper rotary nickel-titanium instruments with ISO sized tips in simulated canals. A total of 40 simulated root canals made up of four different shapes in terms of angle and position of curvature were prepared by ProFile instruments using the 'crown down' approach recommended by the manufacturer. Part 2 of this two-part report describes the efficacy of the instruments in terms of prevalence of canal aberrations, the amount and direction of canal transportation and the overall post-operative shape. Out of 37 completed specimens 9 zips (24%) and one ledge (3%) were created, but no perforations or danger zones were found. There were significant differences (P < 0.01) between canal shapes for the incidence of zips and elbows but not for their distance from the end-point of preparation. At specific positions along the canal length there were significant differences between the canal types in terms of their mean total width; overall, at the end-point of preparation and along the curved portion of the canals those specimens with 40 degrees curves were widest. This trend continued for the width of material removed from the outer aspect of the canal curves, whereas along the inner aspect of curves more material was removed in the 20 degrees canals. Overall, transportation was towards the outer aspect of the curve at the end-point of preparation and along the curved portion of canals but more balanced along the straight coronal section. Absolute transportation was small and below 0.1 mm at every position including the zips. Under the conditions of this study, ProFile nickel-titanium rotary instruments with ISO sized tips produced a larger number of zips than expected; however, the degree of zipping was limited and relatively minor.
53. Bryant, S.T., et al., Shaping ability of Profile rotary nickel-titanium
instruments with ISO sized tips in simulated root canals: Part 1. Int Endod J,
1998. 31(4): p. 275-81.
The aim of this study was to determine the shaping ability of ProFile 0.04 taper rotary nickel-titanium instruments with ISO sized tips in simulated canals. A total of 40 simulated root canal made up of four different shapes in terms of angle and position of curvature were prepared by ProFile instruments using the 'crown down' approach recommended by the manufacturer. Part 1 of this two-part report describes the efficacy of the instruments in terms of preparation time, instrument failure, canal blockages, loss of canal length and three-dimensional canal form. The time necessary for canal preparation was on average 5.2 min and was not influenced significantly by canal shape. Three instrument fractures occurred and a further 3 instruments deformed; size 35 instruments failed the most (4) followed by size 30 (2), four of the failures occurred in canals with 40 degrees curves. None of the canals became blocked with debris and change in working distance was minimal. Intra-canal impressions of canal form demonstrated that most canals had apical stops and smooth canal walls whereas all canals had good flow and taper. Under the conditions of this study, ProFile 0.04 taper rotary nickel-titanium instruments with ISO sized tips prepared simulated canals rapidly and created good three-dimensional form.
54. Zuolo, M.L. and R.E. Walton, Instrument deterioration with usage:
nickel-titanium versus stainless steel. Quintessence Int, 1997. 28(6): p.
Nickel-titanium instruments purportedly resist deformation and loss of sharpness better than do stainless steel instruments but may be more susceptible to breakage. The processes of wear and breakage of nickel-titanium and stainless steel instruments were examined. Sixty files of five types (12 each) and three manufacturers were used. All were used repeatedly in curved canals until failure or for a maximum of 22 minutes. Each instrument was examined with scanning electron microscopy both new (control) and at spaced intervals for evidence of wear and fatigue. All new instruments were of good quality. Stainless steel instrument tended to wear the most rapidly, and next were nickel-titanium rotary instruments; the most resistant to wear were nickel-titanium hand instruments. There were few instrument separations. In general, nickel-titanium (particularly hand) instruments resisted deterioration better than did stainless steel. Nickel-titanium rotary instruments (2 of 12) had the most breakage.
55. Wolcott, J. and V.T. Himel, Torsional properties of nickel-titanium versus
stainless steel endodontic files. J Endod, 1997. 23(4): p. 217-20.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the torsional properties of stainless steel K-type .02 taper and nickel-titanium U-type .02 and .04 taper instruments. Torsion tests were performed on all three designs of instruments according to ANSI/ADA specification number 28. For each design, 20 instruments of each of three sizes (15, 25, and 35) were tested. The three parameters measured were maximum torque, torque at failure, and angular deflection. Stainless steel K-type .02 taper and nickel-titanium U-type .02 and .04 taper instruments met or exceeded specification standards for maximum torque. They also satisfied and far exceeded the standards for angular deflection at the failure point. The stainless steel instruments showed no significant difference between maximum torque and torque at failure, whereas both of the nickel-titanium instruments showed a significant differential between maximum torque and torque at failure.
56. Thompson, S.A. and P.M. Dummer, Shaping ability of ProFile.04 Taper Series
29 rotary nickel-titanium instruments in simulated root canals. Part 2. Int
Endod J, 1997. 30(1): p. 8-15.
The aim of this study was to determine the shaping ability of ProFile.04 Taper Series 29 rotary nickel-titanium instruments in simulated canals. A total of 40 simulated root canals made up of four different shapes in terms of angle and position of curvature were prepared by ProFile instruments using a step-down approach. Part 2 of this two-part report describes the efficacy of the instruments in terms of prevalence of canal aberrations, the amount and direction of canal transportation and the overall postoperative shape. No zips, perforations or danger zones were created although 24 specimens (60%) had ledges on the outer wall of the canal. The incidence of ledges differed significantly (P < 0.001) between the canal shapes. At specific points along the canal length there were highly significant differences (P < 0.001) in total canal width and in the amount of material removed from the inner and outer aspects of the curve between the various canal shapes. Overall, 40 degrees canals were wider than 20 degrees canals and canals with curves which began 8 mm from the orifice were wider than 12 mm canals. The direction of canal transportation at the end-point of preparation was balanced between inner and outer in the 8 mm canals, but more often towards the outer in the 12 mm canals. At the apex of the curve, transportation was invariably towards the outer aspect of the curvature. At the beginning of the curve, transportation was more balanced between inner and outer. Mean absolute transportation, ignoring direction, was generally greater in 40 degrees canals and in those with the curve beginning 8 mm from the orifice. Of particular importance was the finding that excessive resin was removed from the outer aspect of the canal at the apex of the curve which was often associated with irregular widened areas or ledges. This is in contrast to the pattern of tissue removal found with stainless steel hand instruments where more resin is removed from the inner aspect of the canal at the apex, to create a danger zone.
57. Thompson, S.A. and P.M. Dummer, Shaping ability of NT Engine and McXim
rotary nickel-titanium instruments in simulated root canals. Part 1. Int Endod
J, 1997. 30(4): p. 262-9.
The aim of this study was to determine the shaping ability of NT Engine and McXim nickel-titanium rotary instruments in simulated root canals. In all, 40 canals consisting of four different shapes in terms of angle and position of curvature were prepared by a combination of NT Engine and McXim instruments using the technique recommended by the manufacturer. Part 1 of this two-part report describes the efficacy of the instruments in terms of preparation time, instrument failure, canal blockages, loss of canal length and three-dimensional canal form. Overall, the mean preparation time for all canals was 6.01 min, with canal shape having a significant effect (P < 0.01) on the speed of preparation. One instrument fractured and only four instruments deformed, with most of the failures occurring in canals with curves which began 12 mm from the orifice, that is, in short acute curves. None of the canals became blocked with debris. Following preparation, 20 canals retained their original working length but 19 lost length and one gained in length; there were significant differences (P < 0.05) between the canal shapes in terms of mean loss of distance and in the category of distance change. Apical stops as determined from intracanal impressions were present in 37 of the canals; 16 were judged to be of good quality and 21 of poor quality. The canals were found to be smooth in the apical half of the canal in 33 specimens and in the coronal half of 39 specimens. All canals had good taper characteristics and 35 had good flow characteristics. Under the conditions of this study, NT Engine and McXim instruments prepared canals rapidly, with few deformations, no canal blockages and with minimal change in working length. The three-dimensional form of the canals demonstrated good flow and taper characteristics.
58. Thompson, S.A. and P.M. Dummer, Shaping ability of Lightspeed rotary
nickel-titanium instruments in simulated root canals. Part 1. J Endod, 1997.
23(11): p. 698-702.
The aim of this study was to determine the shaping ability of Lightspeed nickel-titanium rotary instruments in simulated canals. Forty canals consisting of four different shapes in terms of angle and position of curvature were prepared by Lightspeed instruments using the technique recommended by the manufacturer. This report describes the efficacy of the instruments in terms of preparation time, instrument failure, canal blockages, loss of canal length, and three-dimensional canal form. Overall, the mean preparation time for all canals was 8.12 min with canal shape having no significant effect on the speed of preparation. No instruments deformed or separated during the study, and none of the canals became blocked with debris. Seventeen canals retained their original working length, but 16 gained in length and 7 lost length. There was no significant difference between the canal shapes in terms of the mean loss of distance or category of distance change. Apical stops as judged from intracanal impressions were present in 23 of the canals but they were all judged to be of poor quality. The canals were found to be smooth in the apical half of the canal in 36 specimens and in the coronal half of 24 specimens. All the canals had poor taper characteristics, and only 16 specimens showed good flow characteristics. Under the conditions of this study, Lightspeed instruments prepared canals rapidly, with no fractures, canal blockages, and with minimal change in working length. The three dimensional form of the canals was compromised as flow and taper were less than ideal, presumably as a result of an ineffective stepback procedure. The results imply that either the stepback sequence should be modified or another instrument with increased taper should be used to refine the canal walls before obturation.
59. Thompson, S.A. and P.M. Dummer, Shaping ability of ProFile.04 Taper Series
29 rotary nickel-titanium instruments in simulated root canals. Part 1. Int
Endod J, 1997. 30(1): p. 1-7.
The aim of this study was to determine the shaping ability of ProFile.04 Taper Series 29 nickel-titanium instruments in simulated canals. A total of 40 simulated root canals made up of four different shapes in terms of angle and position of curvature were prepared by ProFile instruments using a step-down approach. Part 1 of this two-part report describes the efficacy of the instruments in terms of preparation time, instrument failure, canal blockages, loss of canal length and three-dimensional canal form. The time necessary for canal preparation was not influenced significantly by canal shape. No instrument fractures occurred but a total of 52 instruments deformed. Size 6 instruments deformed the most followed by sizes 5, 3 and 4. Canal shape did not influence significantly instrument deformation. None of the canals became blocked with debris and loss of working distance was on average 0.5 mm or less. Intracanal impressions of canal form demonstrated that most canals had definite apical stops, smooth canal walls and good flow and taper. Under the conditions of this study, ProFile.04 Taper Series 29 rotary nickel-titanium instruments prepared simulated canals rapidly and created good three-dimensional form. A substantial number of instruments deformed but it was not possible to determine whether this phenomenon occurred because of the nature of the experimental model or through an inherent design weakness in the instruments.
60. Tepel, J., E. Schafer, and W. Hoppe, Properties of endodontic hand
instruments used in rotary motion. Part 3. Resistance to bending and fracture. J
Endod, 1997. 23(3): p. 141-5.
Bending and torsional properties of 24 different types of nickel-titanium K-files, titanium-aluminium K-files and reamers, conventional stainless steel K-files and reamers, and flexible stainless steel instruments were investigated corresponding to ISO 3630-1 by determination of the bending moment on the one hand and the torque and angular deflection on the other. Numbers 15, 25, and 35 instruments were tested with a sample size of 10 instruments for each type and size. In ascending order of bending moment the instruments ranked: nickel-titanium K-files, titanium-aluminium K-files and reamers, flexible stainless steel instruments, conventional stainless steel K-files, and reamers. Nickel-titanium, titanium aluminium, and flexible stainless steel instruments displayed lower torque values than conventional stainless steel K-files and reamers. The average angular deflection ranged from 380 degrees (#15 reamer) to 2370 degrees (#35 K-file). Overall, the fracture risk of the instruments tested in this study was comparably low.
61. Pruett, J.P., D.J. Clement, and D.L. Carnes, Jr., Cyclic fatigue testing of
nickel-titanium endodontic instruments. J Endod, 1997. 23(2): p. 77-85.
Cyclic fatigue of nickel-titanium, engine-driven instruments was studied by determining the effect of canal curvature and operating speed on the breakage of Lightspeed instruments. A new method of canal curvature evaluation that addressed both angle and abruptness of curvature was introduced. Canal curvature was simulated by constructing six curved stainless-steel guide tubes with angles of curvature of 30, 45, or 60 degrees, and radii of curvature of 2 or 5 mm. Size #30 and #40 Light-speed instruments were placed through the guide tubes and the heads secured in the collet of a Mangtrol Dynamometer. A simulated operating load of 10 g-cm was applied. Instruments were able to rotate freely in the test apparatus at speeds of 750, 1300, or 2000 rpm until separation occurred. Cycles to failure were determined. Cycles to failure were not affected by rpm. Instruments did not separate at the head, but rather at the point of maximum flexure of the shaft, corresponding to the midpoint of curvature within the guide tube. The instruments with larger diameter shafts, #40, failed after significantly fewer cycles than did #30 instruments under identical test conditions. Multivariable analysis of variance indicated that cycles to failure significantly decreased as the radius of curvature decreased from 5 mm to 2 mm and as the angle of curvature increased greater than 30 degrees (p < 0.05, power = 0.9). Scanning electron microscopic evaluation revealed ductile fracture as the fatigue failure mode. These results indicate that, for nickel-titanium, engine-driven rotary instruments, the radius of curvature, angle of curvature, and instrument size are more important than operating speed for predicting separation. This study supports engineering concepts of cyclic fatigue failure and suggests that standardized fatigue tests of nickel-titanium rotary instruments should include dynamic operation in a flexed state. The results also suggest that the effect of the radius of curvature as an independent variable should be considered when evaluating studies of root canal instrumentation.
62. Zmener, O. and G. Banegas, Comparison of three instrumentation techniques in
the preparation of simulated curved root canals. Int Endod J, 1996. 29(5): p.
Forty-five acrylic blocks with simulated curved canals were divided into three groups of 15 blocks each. In group 1 the canals were instrumented with ultrasonically energized K-files (UEF) using a piezoelectric ultrasonic device. In group 2 the canals were prepared with ProFile 0.04 Taper Series 29 Rotary Instruments (PRI) in conjunction with a low-speed high torque handpiece. In group 3 (control) the canals were hand instrumented (HI) with conventional K-type files using a standard push-pull circumferential technique. The efficiency of these techniques for preparing the simulated canals were compared by measuring the amount of transportation of the prepared canals at different levels from the working length using a double exposure photographic technique. A statistical analysis was used to indicate any significant difference among groups. The results showed that the use of PRI provided well-centred and more tapered preparations. Conversely, the use of UEF and HI resulted in frequent alteration of the original curvature, showing transportation at different levels from the working length.
63. Marsicovetere, E.S., et al., Torsional testing of the Lightspeed
nickel-titanium instrument system. J Endod, 1996. 22(12): p. 681-4.
Revolutions to separation and maximum torque at failure of 216 Lightspeed instruments were determined in an instron using a clockwise rotation. After instruments failed, the distance the instrument separated from the tip was measured. Comparison of the results with existing ANSI/ADA specification no. 28 showed that the Lightspeed far exceeded the values of the specification for revolution to failure. On the other hand, torque to failure results showed that instrument sizes 20 and 25 exceeded the specification, whereas instrument sizes 30 through 50 were below the minimum values. Half-size instruments were not compared, because specifications for half-sizes do not exist. Comparison between mean torque values and instrument shaft diameters of the Lightspeed previously reported showed a near linear relationship up to and including instrument size 50, but overall torque to failure increased exponentially when related to shaft diameter (coefficient of determination = 0.9923). Lightspeed instruments separated 2.32 +/- 0.60 mm from the tip, generally within the land area or at the beginning of the shaft. Scanning electron microscopic observation of the Lightspeed instrument fracture site showed two distinct areas. There was a striated concentric area in the periphery of the fracture characteristic of a brittle or cleavage fracture and a corrugated area in the center of the fracture characteristic of a ductile fracture.
64. Gambill, J.M., M. Alder, and C.E. del Rio, Comparison of nickel-titanium and
stainless steel hand-file instrumentation using computed tomography. J Endod,
1996. 22(7): p. 369-75.
Computed tomography was used to evaluate root canals prepared by nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) hand and stainless steel hand endodontic instruments. Thirty-six single-rooted teeth of similar shape and canal size were divided into three groups. The teeth were scanned by computed tomography before instrumentation. In group A, canals were instrumented using a quarter turn/pull technique with K-flex files. In group B, canals were prepared with Ni-Ti hand files (Mity files) using the same technique as group A. Group C was prepared with Ni-Ti hand files (Mity files) using a reaming technique. Instrumented teeth were again scanned using computed tomography, and reformated images of the uninstrumented canals were compared with images of the instrumented canals. Ni-Ti instruments (Mity file) used in a reaming technique caused significantly less canal transportation (p < 0.05), removed significantly less volume of dentin (p < 0.05), required less instrumentation time (p < 0.05), and produced more centered and rounder canal preparations than K-flex stainless steel files used in a quarter turn/pull technique. The computed tomography imaging system used in this study provided a repeatable, noninvasive method of evaluating certain aspects of endodontic instrumentation.
65. Coleman, C.L., et al., Analysis of nickel-titanium versus stainless steel
instrumentation by means of direct digital imaging. J Endod, 1996. 22(11): p.
This study compared step-back preparations in curved canals using nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) K-files and stainless steel K-files. Forty canals in mesial roots of mandibular molars were embedded in casting resin and cross-sectioned at three levels: 1 to 2 mm from the apical foramen, middle of the curve, and coronal. Direct digital computer images were recorded before and after instrumentation. Superimposition of the images combined with digital subtraction computer software allowed direct measurement of area instrumented, distance of transportation, and shape analysis. The computer software calculated absolute center of gravity for each image analyzed to get a full 360-degree interpretation of the canal transport. Time of instrumentation was recorded. Results showed Ni-Ti files to cause significantly less transportation and remain more centered at the apical level (p < 0.05). Area removed by Ni-Ti and stainless steel files was not significantly different (p < 0.05). Time of instrumentation was not significantly different for Ni-Ti and stainless steel instruments (p < 0.05). Cross-sectional shape of the instrumented canal was not significantly different (p < 0.05).
66. Canalda-Sahli, C., E. Brau-Aguade, and E. Berastegui-Jimeno, Torsional and
bending properties of stainless steel and nickel titanium Canal Master U and
Flexogate instruments. Endod Dent Traumatol, 1996. 12(3): p. 141-5.
The purpose of this study was to assess and to compare the torsional and bending properties of the Canal Master U (CMU) and Flexogate instruments made of stainless steel and nickel titanium. The bending moment, the torsional moment and angular deflection were measured according to ANSI/ADA specification number 28 and ISO reference number 3630. Ten instruments of each size, sizes 25 to 40 were used for each test. Nickel titanium instruments were significantly more flexible than stainless steel files. With regard to the torsional moment, values obtained were below the standards in all sizes except stainless steel CMU sizes 25, 35 and 40, and nickel titanium CMU size 25. Nickel titanium instrument also showed the highest angular deflection values. There were statistically significant differences between nickel titanium files and stainless steel Flexogates and between stainless steel Flexogates and stainless steel CMU. Based on these findings, the use of nickel titanium CMU and Flexogates is encouraged. Given the perceived advantages of both CMU and Flexogate instruments over conventional files for canal preparation, it would appear desirable to have the torque resistance of these instruments improved.
67. Pertot, W.J., J. Camps, and M.G. Damiani, Transportation of curved canals
prepared with canal master U, canal master U niti, and stainless steel K-type
files. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod, 1995. 79(4): p. 504-9.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate and to compare root canal configuration after preparation with three different hand instruments and techniques: the canal master U preparation technique (Brasseler, Savannah, GA.), using stainless steel or nickel-titanium canal master U instruments, and the step-back technique using precurved conventional stainless steel K-type files. Sixty-three simulated curved canals were divided in three groups of 21 each. Each group was prepared using one of the three instruments. Comparison of root canal configuration was evaluated with pre- and postoperative photographs that measured the difference in canal diameter and the mesial and distal transportation of the canal walls at the canal length and at levels 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 mm coronal to the canal length. Data obtained were analyzed statistically using an analysis of variance. Instrument breakage was also recorded. Results showed that the final diameter of the prepared canals as well as canal transportation were significantly different between both canal master U instruments and the stainless steel K file. Three stainless steel canal master U instruments separated during instrumentation whereas none in the nickel-titanium canal master U and stainless steel K-type file groups separated. The results of this study show that the canal master U instruments and technique provide a better canal configuration than K files using the step-back technique and that the nickel-titanium canal master U and stainless steel K-type file offers a greater safety factor against breakage than the stainless steel canal master U.
68. Glossen, C.R., et al., A comparison of root canal preparations using Ni-Ti
hand, Ni-Ti engine-driven, and K-Flex endodontic instruments. J Endod, 1995.
21(3): p. 146-51.
This study used a modified Bramante technique and new digital subtraction software to compare root canals prepared by nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) hand, Ni-Ti engine-driven, and stainless steel hand endodontic instruments. Sixty mesial canals of extracted human mandibular molars were randomly divided into five groups. The roots were embedded in clear resin and cross-sectioned in the apical and mid-root areas. In group A, canals were instrumented using a quarter turn/pull technique with K-Flex files. In group B, canals were prepared with Ni-Ti hand files (Mity files) using the same technique as in group A. Group C was prepared with NT Sensor engine-driven files. Group D canals were prepared with Ni-Ti Canal Master "U" hand instruments. Group E was prepared with engine-driven Ni-Ti Lightspeed instruments. Digitized images of the uninstrumented canals were compared with images of the instrumented canals. Engine-driven Ni-Ti instruments (Lightspeed and NT Sensor file) and hand instrumentation with the Canal Master "U" caused significantly less canal transportation (p < 0.05), remained more centered in the canal (p < 0.05), removed less dentin (p < 0.05), and produced rounder canal preparations than K-Flex and Mity files. Engine instrumentation with Lightspeed and NT Sensor file was significantly faster than hand instrumentation (p < 0.05).
69. Esposito, P.T. and C.J. Cunningham, A comparison of canal preparation with
nickel-titanium and stainless steel instruments. J Endod, 1995. 21(4): p. 173-6.
Maintaining the original canal path during instrumentation is a challenge in narrow curved canals. This study compared the maintenance of the original canal path of curved root canals during instrumentation with nickel-titanium (Mac) hand files, nickel-titanium engine-driven files, and stainless steel (K-Flex) files. Canal path maintenance was determined by superimposing instrumentation radiographs over an initial file radiograph and examining for discrepancies. Nickel-titanium hand and engine-driven instruments maintained the original canal path in all cases. The incidence of deviation from the original canal path during instrumentation with stainless steel files increased with file size. The difference between nickel-titanium groups and stainless steel became statistically significant with instruments larger than size 30. In this study, nickel-titanium files were more effective in maintaining the original canal path of curved root canals when the apical preparation was enlarged beyond size 30.
70. Torabinejad, M., Passive step-back technique. A sequential use of ultrasonic
and hand instruments. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol, 1994. 77(4): p. 402-5.
Step back, step down, crown down, balanced forces techniques and their variations have been proposed to clean and shape the root canal systems. Ultrasonic instruments have also been used to clean and shape pathologically involved root canals. Because neither of these techniques alone can completely clean complex root canal systems, a step-by-step sequential use of ultrasonic and hand instruments that uses the advantages of both techniques and eliminates most of their disadvantages is described in this article. Proper use of this technique produces cleaner canals and less transportation of root canals, reduces procedural accidents, and is convenient for the operator as well as the patient.